Publication Laka-library:
Cyclotron Based Production of Technetium-99m

AuthorIAEA
6-07-4-60-31.pdf
DateJune 2017
Classification 6.07.4.60/31 (MISCELLANEOUS - NUCLEAR MEDICINE / MEDICAL APPLICATIONS - RADIO-ISOTOPES)
Remarks Online available, together with supplementary materials at Iaea.org
Front

From the publication:

CYCLOTRON BASED PRODUCTION OF TECHNETIUM-99m
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY
VIENNA, 2017

1. INTRODUCTION

Efforts and studies to investigate alternative production routes of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) 
and technetium-99m (99mTc) are ongoing all over the world. The direct production of 99mTc 
using accelerators is one of the proposed alternatives that utilizes the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc
reaction on highly 100Mo-enriched target material [1–5]. A Coordinated Research Project 
(CRP) on Accelerator-based Alternatives to Non-HEU Production of 99Mo/99mTc was initiated 
with the aim of developing an alternative direct method of production of 99mTc using 
dedicated high current cyclotrons.
There are several potential methods for the production of 99mTc from accelerators. These 
have been explored in a recent publication by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 2010 [6]. 
An IAEA consultants meeting was held in 2011 to review the current status of research and 
development of and the perspective for the accelerator based production of 99mTc. The 
meeting concluded with the suggestion that the IAEA initiate a CRP on the development of 
accelerator based alternatives to the 99Mo/99mTc generator, with an emphasis on several
outstanding issues that need further research and development, including:
—— The purity of the final 99mTc product with regard to both the isotopic ratio of the 
molybdenum starting material and the proton energy.
—— Approaches to isolating and purifying the 99mTc extracted from the target material. 
A more complete understanding regarding reproducibility, purity and efficiency for 
these approaches is needed and should use prescribed metrics for direct comparisons.
—— The impact of specific activity (99mTc / all Tc isotopes including 99gTc) has to be 
determined in order to define the shelf life of accelerator produced 99mTc compared 
with generator produced 99mTc in the formulation of radiopharmaceutical kits.
—— The path to recovery of the enriched 100Mo target material including the tracking 
of the isotopic composition and chemical and radionuclidic impurities.

It was noted by the expert panel assembled that the proposed CRP on direct production 
may also be a long term solution and is quite sufficient to manufacture 99mTc on-site 
for supplying regional radiopharmacies and may supplement or in some instances even 
replace 99Mo generators.