Publicatie Laka-bibliotheek:
Governing Uranium in Russia

AuteurA.Khlopkov, V.Chekina

Uit de publicatie:

Governing Uranium in Russia

Anton Khlopkov, Director, Center for Energy and Security Studies (CENESS)
Valeriya Chekina, Research Associate, Center for Energy and Security Studies (CENESS)
© Copenhagen 2014, the authors and DIIS
Danish Institute for International Studies, DIIS
Østbanegade 117, DK 2100 Copenhagen

This report is part of the larger global 'Governing Uranium'
project led by DIIS which is made possible by support from
the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.

Introduction 5
1. Russia’s Nuclear Industry’s Demand for Uranium 7
1.1 Demand generated by Russian NPPs 7
1.2 Other domestic sources of demand for uranium 11
1.3 Demand for uranium generated by Russian nuclear exports 11
2. Meeting Russia’s Nuclear Industry’s Demand for Uranium 16
2.1 Uranium mining in Russia 16
2.2 Uranium production at Russian-owned facilities abroad 27
2.3 Secondary sources of uranium 31
2.4 Customer-provided uranium 33
3. Russia and Uranium Regulation 34
3.1 Russian nuclear industry governance structure and uranium
conversion 34
3.2 Regulation of the use of nuclear materials 37
3.3 Nuclear materials transportation regulations 42
3.4 IAEA safeguards 49
3.5 Nuclear export control 57
Conclusion 61
Annex A. Abbreviations 64
About the authors 66

Tables and Figures
Table 1 Russian nuclear industry’s demand for natural uranium 7
Table 2 Operational Russian NPPs 8
Table 3 Past, current, and projected share of nuclear power in
Russian energy balance 9
Table 4 Projected growth of Russian nuclear generation capacity 9
Table 5 Russian NPPs' projected demand for uranium based on
the Energy Strategy to 2035 data 10
Table 6 Russia’s share of the global nuclear market, by segment 12
Table 7 Soviet/Russian-designed nuclear power reactors, by country 13
Table 8 Uranium mining in Russia 17
Table 9 Sources of uranium supplied to the Soviet Union in 1946-1950 19
Table 10 Existing uranium production centers in Russia 23
Table 11 Leading uranium producers in 2012 26
Table 12 Russian uranium conversion capacity 36
Table 13 Requirements contained in bilateral agreements that go beyond
the standards of the Russia-IAEA safeguards agreement 53
Table 14 Selected Russia’s safeguarded nuclear facilities and facilities
placed on the eligible facilities list (EFL) 57
Figure 1 Soviet/CIS uranium production 19
Figure 2 Uranium production in Russia 23
Figure 3 Russia’s uranium mining and conversion facilities map 25
Figure 4 Uranium production by Rosatom-owned companies abroad 29
Figure 5 Uranium production by Rosatom-owned companies in Russia
and abroad 30
Figure 6 Rosatom organizational structure 34

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