The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2015
|Auteur||Mycle Schneider, Antony Froggatt|
|Classificatie||6.01.0.20/126 (BELANG MONDIAAL)|
|Opmerking||Download the Status Report 2015 from World Nuclear Report|
Uit de publicatie:
The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2015 By Mycle Schneider Independent Consultant, Paris, France Project Coordinator and Lead Author Antony Frogatt Independent Consultant, London, U.K. Lead Author With Julie Hazemann Director of EnerWebWatch, Paris, France Documentary Research, Modeling and Graphic Design Tadahiro Katsuta Associate Professor, School of Law, Meiji University, Tokyo, Japan Contributing Author M.V.Ramana Nuclear Futures Laboratory & Program on Science and Global Security Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, U.S. Contributing Author Steve Thomas Professor for Energy Policy, Greenwich University, U.K. Contributing Author Paris, London, July 2015 © A Mycle Schneider Consulting Project Cover page and layout created by Noëlle Papay The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2015 provides a comprehensive overview of nuclear power plant data, including information on operation, production and construction. The WNISR assesses the status of new‐build programs in current nuclear countries as well as in potential newcomer countries. This edition provides an analysis of the evolution of construction starts over time. There are also two new chapters, the first describes the serious delays of Generation III+ reactor projects (including the EPR, AP1000, AES‐2006) and analyses their origins. The second looks at the history and development status of so‐called advanced reactors. The Fukushima Status Report gives an updated overview of the standing of onsite and offsite issues four years after the beginning of the catastrophe. The Nuclear Power vs. Renewable Energy chapter provides global comparative data on investment, capacity, and generation, especially from nuclear, wind and solar. Finally, Annex 1 presents a country‐by‐country overview of all 31 countries operating nuclear power plants, with extended Focus sections on China, France, Japan, and the United States. Startups and Shutdowns. In 2014, just as in 2013, five reactors started up (three in China, one in Argentina, one in Russia) and one was shut down (Vermont Yankee in the U.S.). In the first half of 2015, four reactors started up in China and one in South Korea, while two were shut down (Doel‐1 in Belgium2 and Grafenrheinfeld in Germany). Operation and Construction Data3 Reactor Operation. There are 31 countries operating nuclear power plants in the world.4 A total of 391 reactors (three more than a year ago) have a combined installed capacity of 337 GW5 (5 GW more than a year ago). Not a single unit generated power in Japan in 2014, and WNISR classifies 40 Japanese reactors6 as being in Long‐Term Outage (LTO).7 Besides the Japanese reactors, one Swedish reactor (Oskarshamn‐2) meets the LTO criteria and its majority owner has called for its early closure. There are two units that were in LTO in WNISR2014 that now fall outside the category: one South Korean reactor, Wolsong‐1, was restarted in June 2015, and one Indian reactor, Rajasthan‐1, is to be decommissioned. Ten reactors at Fukushima Daiichi and Daini are considered permanently closed and are therefore not included in the count of operating nuclear power plants. As of early July 2015, it appears likely that at the most two reactors (Sendai‐1 and ‐2 in Kyushu Prefecture) will restart in Japan during 2015. The nuclear industry remains in decline: The 391 operating reactors—excluding LTOs—are 47 fewer than the 2002 peak of 438, while the total installed capacity peaked in 2010 at 367 GW before declining by 8 percent to 337 GW, which is comparable to levels last seen two decades ago. Annual nuclear electricity generation reached 2,410 TWh in 2014—a 2.2 percent increase over the previous year, but 9.4 percent below the historic peak in 2006. Share in Power Mix. The nuclear share of the world’s power generation remained stable8 over the past three years, with 10.8 percent in 2014 after declining steadily from a historic peak of 17.6 percent in 1996. Nuclear power’s share of global commercial primary energy production also remained stable at 4.4 percent, the lowest level since 1984.9
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