Governing Uranium in Russia
|Classification||18.104.22.168/02 (RUSSIA - URANIUM MINING (& CONSEQUENCES))|
From the publication:
Governing Uranium in Russia Anton Khlopkov, Director, Center for Energy and Security Studies (CENESS) Valeriya Chekina, Research Associate, Center for Energy and Security Studies (CENESS) © Copenhagen 2014, the authors and DIIS Danish Institute for International Studies, DIIS Østbanegade 117, DK 2100 Copenhagen This report is part of the larger global 'Governing Uranium' project led by DIIS which is made possible by support from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Contents Introduction 5 1. Russia’s Nuclear Industry’s Demand for Uranium 7 1.1 Demand generated by Russian NPPs 7 1.2 Other domestic sources of demand for uranium 11 1.3 Demand for uranium generated by Russian nuclear exports 11 2. Meeting Russia’s Nuclear Industry’s Demand for Uranium 16 2.1 Uranium mining in Russia 16 2.2 Uranium production at Russian-owned facilities abroad 27 2.3 Secondary sources of uranium 31 2.4 Customer-provided uranium 33 3. Russia and Uranium Regulation 34 3.1 Russian nuclear industry governance structure and uranium conversion 34 3.2 Regulation of the use of nuclear materials 37 3.3 Nuclear materials transportation regulations 42 3.4 IAEA safeguards 49 3.5 Nuclear export control 57 Conclusion 61 Annex A. Abbreviations 64 About the authors 66 Tables and Figures Table 1 Russian nuclear industry’s demand for natural uranium 7 Table 2 Operational Russian NPPs 8 Table 3 Past, current, and projected share of nuclear power in Russian energy balance 9 Table 4 Projected growth of Russian nuclear generation capacity 9 Table 5 Russian NPPs' projected demand for uranium based on the Energy Strategy to 2035 data 10 Table 6 Russia’s share of the global nuclear market, by segment 12 Table 7 Soviet/Russian-designed nuclear power reactors, by country 13 Table 8 Uranium mining in Russia 17 Table 9 Sources of uranium supplied to the Soviet Union in 1946-1950 19 Table 10 Existing uranium production centers in Russia 23 Table 11 Leading uranium producers in 2012 26 Table 12 Russian uranium conversion capacity 36 Table 13 Requirements contained in bilateral agreements that go beyond the standards of the Russia-IAEA safeguards agreement 53 Table 14 Selected Russia’s safeguarded nuclear facilities and facilities placed on the eligible facilities list (EFL) 57 Figure 1 Soviet/CIS uranium production 19 Figure 2 Uranium production in Russia 23 Figure 3 Russia’s uranium mining and conversion facilities map 25 Figure 4 Uranium production by Rosatom-owned companies abroad 29 Figure 5 Uranium production by Rosatom-owned companies in Russia and abroad 30 Figure 6 Rosatom organizational structure 34
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