Publication Laka-library:
Factors Affecting the Influence of Local Movements and Non-Governmental Organisations in Nuclear Waste Policy-Making. In Finland and the Netherlands

AuthorR.Verwaaijen
-
DateJune 2019
Classification 2.09.4.10/07 (FINLAND - WASTE)

From the publication:

Factors Affecting the Influence of Local Movements and Non-Governmental 
Organisations in Nuclear Waste Policy-Making
In Finland and the Netherlands
Vita Verwaaijen,
MSc Thesis Environmental Policy Group
Supervisor: Mattijs Smits
June 2019

Abstract
Finland is the first country that is constructing a final depository for nuclear 
waste, in the municipality Eurajoki. While many consider the nuclear waste policy-
making process to be participatory, others state that local movements (LMs) and 
non-governmental organisations (NGOs) lacked influence during this process. Based 
on concepts from the actor-network theory, the objective of this thesis is to 
study how human and non-human actors affected the lack of influence of LMs and NGOs 
during the nuclear waste policy-making process in Finland and the Netherlands. To 
do so, nineteen semi-structured interviewees were conducted in Finland and six in 
the Netherlands. In Finland, the findings illustrate that: first, there was little 
legitimacy for LMs and NGOs during the nuclear waste policy-making process, as the 
discussion was dominated by technical experts and the schedule for final disposal 
predestined. Secondly, an elderly home, the municipality Loviisa and the fifth 
nuclear reactor, were identified as places that adjusted the policy-making process 
and the influence of LMs and NGOs. Thirdly, as many pro-nuclear actors had their 
own interests for a final depository, a strong pro-nuclear actor-network was formed. 
At the same time, LMs and NGOs lacked resources and credibility to set up a strong 
anti-nuclear actor-network. Findings from the Netherlands illustrate that: first, 
currently there is no discussion regarding nuclear waste, therefore it is now 
considered a black-box. Borssele and the Disposal Advisory Platform (DAP) might open 
this black-box and consequently a public discussion could start. Through the DAP or 
public discussions, LMs and NGOs might be able to influence the process. However, 
for this the final depository schedule should not be predestined till 2100. For 
further research it is recommended to analyse factors affecting predestined policy-
making and hence the influence of LMs and NGOs in other sociotechnical issues such as 
climate change policy-making. Moreover, it would be interesting to study the factors 
that affect the influence of LMs and NGOs during the nuclear waste policy-making 
process in upcoming decennia in the Netherlands.

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