Energy, Electricity And Nuclear Power: Developments And Projections – 25 Years Past And Future
|Classificatie||6.01.0.20/130 (BELANG MONDIAAL)|
Uit de publicatie:
1. INTRODUCTION Although only 30 countries have nuclear power plants in operation, nuclear electricity contributes about 15% of the world’s electricity generation. This is as much as the electricity generation by hydropower worldwide, despite the fact that hydropower is very widely used. Many industrialized countries generate substantial portions of their electricity from nuclear power, for example France 78%, Belgium 54%, Sweden 48%, Republic of Korea 39%, Switzerland 37%, Japan 30%, Finland 28%, USA 19% and UK 18%. Some countries with transitional economies also have very high contributions of nuclear power in their electricity generation mixes, for example Lithuania 72%, Slovakia 57%, Ukraine 48%, Bulgaria 44%, Armenia 42%, Slovenia 40%, and Hungary 38%. Among the 30 nuclear power countries, nine countries generate more than 40% of their total electricity from nuclear power, while seven additional countries have around a 30% nuclear share in their electricity generation. The developing countries with nuclear power, by contrast, have only 2– 9% of their electricity generated by nuclear power. In particular, the large developing countries, Brazil, China and India, generate only 2–3% of their electricity from nuclear power. Worldwide, there are 438 nuclear power units in operation (see Table 1). They constitute 372 GW(e) of installed electricity generating capacity. About one half of these units are in three industrialized countries: USA 104, France 59 and Japan 55 (see Table 1). Most of the world’s nuclear power development took place in the 1970s and 1980s, when the number of nuclear power units in operation increased by 332 units with a total capacity of 301 GW(e). After the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents there was a considerable slowdown in nuclear power expansion. During the 1990s the number of nuclear power plants in operation increased by only 19 units, equal to 31 GW(e) of capacity. From 2000 to 2005, 6 nuclear power units totalling 18 GW(e) capacity were connected or reconnected to the grid. However, nuclear power generation has been increasing continually as a result of improved performance. In 1990, the world average annual capacity factor for nuclear power plants was 67.7%. In 2005 this figure stood at 81.4% — an improvement equivalent to some 74 new nuclear power units of 1 GW(e) each (see the annex for details of calculation).