Publicatie Laka-bibliotheek:
Barriers and Drivers to Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

Datumdecember 2014
Classificatie (THORIUM CYCLUS)

Uit de publicatie:

Barriers and Drivers to
Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology
Case Study of The Netherlands in a European context
A Technological Innovation Systems Approach

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement of
the degree Master of Business Administration of the
International Business School of Hanze University of
Applied Sciences Groningen
Towards the award of Master in International Business
& Management and the award of Master of Arts in
International Business

Date: December 2014
Supervisor: Dr. E. Dommerholt
Co-Marker: Dr. S. Patnaik
Word count: 20.190
Jorrit M. Swaneveld

This thesis explores barriers to LFTR innovation by mapping the technological 
innovation system (TIS) of this emerging technology. The thesis chooses to 
focus on the governmental structure in The Netherlands as a case study but 
with the aim of generalising it to the EU.
The study finds that there are barriers within the Technological innovation 
System (TIS). The first is a lack of awareness and knowledge in both the 
general public and the government. Moreover, insufficient funding is given 
to LFTR since Dutch policy is aimed at renewables and not nuclear. The latter 
is likely related to anti-nuclear sentiments with the people and enforced by 
NGOs. However, all of these factors are interrelated. There is also an absence 
of actors for LFTR; no advocacy groups exist and no entrepreneurial activities 
nor market formation take place. Furthermore, the uranium industry is not 
concerned with alternative fuels as they risk obsoleting the existing uranium 
infrastructure. Similar situations likely occur, in varying degrees, within 
other EU member states. Despite this knowledge creation drives innovation and 
creates positive expectations for MSR technology.
Research groups can counter the widespread lack of knowledge and awareness by 
forming an international confederation and lobby group aimed at diffusing 
scientific knowledge to the public, politicians and NGOs. It is possible that 
this solutions brings about a science and technology push motor to innovation. 
This thorium super network should strive to be scientific, independent and 
can ensure funding for future molten salt reactor research projects. However, 
generalisation of the findings towards all European nations is difficult due 
to different national energy policies. Consequently future research should be 
done in assessing the TIS in other European countries. Further research aimed
at LFTRs feasibility and overcoming technological and social barriers is 

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