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Isotopic noble gas signatures released from medical isotope production facilities- Simulations and measurements

AuteurP.Saey, Th.W.Bowyer, A.Ringbom
6-07-4-60-43.pdf
Datumapril 2010
Classificatie 6.07.4.60/43 (ALLERLEI - MEDISCHE ISOTOPEN - NUCLEAIRE GENEESKUNDE )
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Isotopic noble gas signatures released from medical isotope production facilities-
Simulations and measurements
Article in Applied radiation and isotopes: including data, instrumentation and 
methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine 68(9):1846-54 · April 2010
Paul R.J. Saey, Theodore W. Bowyer, Anders Ringbom

Abstract:
Radioxenon isotopes play a major role in confirming whether or not an underground 
explosion was nuclear in nature. It is then of key importance to understand the 
sources of environmental radioxenon to be able to distinguish civil sources from 
those of a nuclear explosion. Based on several years of measurements, combined 
with advanced atmospheric transport model results, it was recently shown that the
main source of radioxenon observations are strong and regular batch releases 
from a very limited number of medical isotope production facilities. This paper 
reviews production processes in different medical isotope facilities during which 
radioxenon is produced. Radioxenon activity concentrations and isotopic 
compositions are calculated for six large facilities. The results are compared 
with calculated signals from nuclear explosions. Further, the outcome is compared 
and found to be consistent with radioxenon measurements recently performed in and
around three of these facilities. Some anomalies in measurements in which (131m)Xe 
was detected were found and a possible explanation is proposed. It was also 
calculated that the dose rate of the releases is well below regulatory values. 
Based on these results, it should be possible to better understand, interpret and 
verify signals measured in the noble gas measurement systems in the International 
Monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.